What is Trigeminal Neuralgia?

Trigeminal neuralgia, also known as tic douloureux, is a neurological disorder characterized by severe, sudden-onset episodes of intense facial pain. The pain is often described as sharp, stabbing, or electric shock-like, and it typically affects one side of the face. Even mild stimulation of the face, such as touching, talking, eating, or even a breeze, can trigger these episodes of excruciating pain. Trigeminal neuralgia is considered one of the most painful conditions a person can experience.


Trigeminal neuralgia is typically caused by compression or irritation of the trigeminal nerve, which is the fifth cranial nerve responsible for transmitting sensory information from the face to the brain. The exact cause of this compression is not always clear, but it can be related to:

  • Blood Vessel Compression: In some cases, a blood vessel may compress the trigeminal nerve, leading to irritation.
  • Multiple Sclerosis: Trigeminal neuralgia can sometimes occur as a result of multiple sclerosis affecting the nerve.
  • Tumors: Tumors or other structural abnormalities near the trigeminal nerve can cause compression.
  • Age: Trigeminal neuralgia is more common in older adults.


  • Episodic Pain: Sudden and severe pain episodes that last for a few seconds to a couple of minutes.
  • Location: Pain is often localized to one side of the face and typically affects specific areas, such as the cheek, jaw, or forehead.
  • Trigger Points: Pain can be triggered by even mild stimulation of the face, such as touching, eating, or talking.
  • Spontaneous Remission: Pain can come and go, with periods of remission followed by recurrence.


Diagnosing trigeminal neuralgia involves:

  • Medical History: Information about the frequency, duration, and triggers of pain episodes.
  • Physical Examination: Neurological examination to assess sensation and reflexes in the affected areas.
  • Imaging: MRI or CT scans may be done to rule out other potential causes of facial pain.


Treatment for trigeminal neuralgia aims to alleviate pain and improve the patient’s quality of life. Options include:

  • Medications: Anticonvulsant medications (such as carbamazepine) or antispasmodic drugs (such as baclofen) may help reduce nerve firing and pain.
  • Nerve Block: Injecting an anesthetic agent near the trigeminal nerve can provide temporary pain relief.
  • Surgery: For cases that do not respond to medications, various surgical procedures may be considered to alleviate nerve compression, such as microvascular decompression or radiosurgery.
  • Nerve Ablation: Procedures like radiofrequency ablation or glycerol injection can be used to disrupt the pain signals from the trigeminal nerve.
  • Neuromodulation: Techniques like peripheral nerve stimulation or motor cortex stimulation can modulate nerve signals and provide relief.
  • Ketamine Infusion Therapy: In some cases, when traditional treatments like anticonvulsant medications or surgical interventions have not provided sufficient relief, healthcare providers may consider ketamine infusion therapy as an option.

Trigeminal neuralgia is a complex condition that requires a proper diagnosis and management plan tailored to the individual. If you suspect you have trigeminal neuralgia or are experiencing severe facial pain, it’s crucial to consult with a healthcare provider, particularly one with expertise in neurology or pain management. They can accurately diagnose the condition and recommend appropriate treatment options to manage the pain.







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